Archive for the ‘P’Category
The desire to obtain an accurate knowledge of the archeology of Palestine, gave rise in 1866 to an association, which was permanently organized in London, as the Palestine Exploration Fund, with the Queen as the chief patron, and a long list of the nobility and the most distinguished gentlemen in the kingdom, added to which followed the Grand Lodge of England and forty-two subordinate and provincial Grand Lodges and Chapters- Early in the year 1867 the Committee began the work of examination, by mining in and about the various points which had been determined upon by a former survey as essential to a proper understanding of the ancient city, which had been covered up by debris from age to age, so that the present profiles of the ground, in every direction, were totally different from what they were in the days of David and Solomon, or even in the time of Christ- Lieutenant Charles Warren, R. E., as he then was, later Lieut.-General Sir Charles Warren, G.M.C.M, K.C.B, F.R.S., was sent out with authority to act as circumstances might demand, and as the delicacy and the importance of the enterprise required.
He arrived in Jerusalem February 17, 1867, and continued his labors of excavating in many parts of the city, with some interruptions, until 1871, when he returned to England. During his operations, he kept the Society in London constantly informed of the progress of the work in which he and his associates were so zealously engaged, in a majority of eases at the imminent risk of their lives and always that of their health.
The result of these labors has been a vast accumulation of facts in relation to the topography of the holy city which throw much light on its archaeology. A branch of the Society has been established in the United States of America, and continued in successful operation.
Called also the Holy Land on account of the sacred character of the events that have occurred there, is situated on the coast of the Mediterranean, stretching from Lebanon south to the borders of Egypt, and from the thirty-fourth to the thirty-ninth degrees of longitude. It was conquered from the Canaanites by the Hebrews under Joshua 1450 years B.C. They divided it into twelve Confederate States according to the Tribes. Saul united it into one kingdom, and David enlarged its territories. In 975 B.C., it was divided into the two kingdoms of Israel and Judea, the latter consisting of the Tribes of Judah and Benjamin, and the former of the rest of the Tribes. About 740 B.C., both kingdoms were subdued by the Persians and Babylonians, and after the captivity only the two Tribes of Judah and Benjamin returned to rebuild the Temple. With Palestine, or the Holy Land, the mythical, if not the authentic, history of Freemasonry has been closely connected.
There stood, at one time, the Temple of Solomon, to which some writers have traced the origin of the Masonic Order; there fought the Crusaders, among whom other writers have sought, with equal boldness, to find the cradle of the Fraternity; there certainly the Order of the Templars was instituted, whose subsequent history has been closely mingled with that of Freemasonry; and there occurred nearly all the events of sacred history that, with the places where they were enacted, have been adopted as important Masonic symbols.
PAGANIS, HUGO DE
The Latinized form of the name of Hugh de Payens, the first Grand Master of the Templars (see Payens).
A general appellation for the religious worship of the whole human race, except of that portion which has embraced Christianity, Judaism, or Mohammedanism. Its interest to the Masonic student arises from the fact that its principal development was the ancient mythology, in whose traditions and mysteries are to be found many interesting analogies with the Masonic system (see Dispensations of Religion).
A political writer of eminence during the Revolutionary War in America. He greatly injured his reputation by his attacks on the Christian religion. He was not a Freemason, but wrote An Essay on the Origin of Freemasonry, with no other knowledge of the Institution than that derived from the writings of Smith and Dodd, and the very questionable authority of Prichard’s Masonry Dissected. He sought to trace Freemasonry to the Celtic Druids. For one so little acquainted with his subject, he has treated it with considerable ingenuity. Paine was born in England in 1737, and died in New York, in 1809. Paine’s acquaintance with prominent Freemasons on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean has doubtless had much to do with the claim often made for his membership in the Craft.
A meeting with Brother Franklin in London obtained for him introductions to the leaders in the Colonies and he sailed there in 1774 where he became editor of the Pennsylvania Gazette. He published, 1776, Common Sense, an argument for a republic. Then he served on the staff of General Greene and wrote pamphlets entitled the Crisis, his opening words, “These are the times that try men’s souls” sounding powerfully then and later in days of turmoil.
In England after the war he was indicted for treason, escaping to France, and there narrowly escaped the guillotine, spending ten months in prison. Then he attacked Washington bitterly, came to the United States, but while his services to the country were gratefully remembered, his blunt discourtesy to the President and other old friends could not be forgotten. He was buried at New Rochelle, hut in 1819 William Cobbett took his body to England. Moncure D. Conway wrote a biography of him which says that the preface to his essay on Freemasonry was probably written by his devoted friend, Colonel John Fellows.
PACHACAMAC (Pacha Kamaq)
The Peruvian name for the Creator and Ruler of the universe.
PAEZ, JOSE ANTONIO
Founder of the Venezuelan Republic, was born of Indian parentage near Acarigua, June 13, 1790, prominent in the struggle for independence against Spain from 1810 to 1823 and in 1829 effected the secession of Venezuela from the Republic of Colombia and became its first president, 1830 to 1834, serving again in 1839 to 1843, dictator in 1846. Headed a revolution and was imprisoned but released in 1858 and in 1860 was Minister to the United States.
General Paez was also first Grand Master of Venezuela and on May 1, 1840, he became the first Grand Commander of the Supreme Council, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, of his country. He died in New York, May 6, 1873. In 1925 the representative at Washington of the Venezuelan Department of State presented the sword of Brother Paez to General John J. Pershing, also a member of the Craft and Commander of the American Army during the World War.
The sixteenth letter of the English and Greek alphabets,
and the seventeenth of the Hebrew, in which last mentioned
language its numerical value is 80, is formed
thus 9, signifying a mouth in the Phenician. The sacred
name of God associated with this letter is in Hebrew ,
Phodeh or Redeemer.
ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FREEMASONRY AND ITS KINDRED SCIENCES
by ALBERT C. MACKEY M. D.
The sixteenth letter of the English and Greek alphabets, and the seventeenth of the Hebrew, in which last mentioned language its numerical value is 80, is formed thus 9, signifying a mouth in the Phenician. The sacred name of God associated with this letter is in Hebrew , Phodeh or Redeemer.